The Google Chrome web browser and Chrome OS contain hidden settings relating to touch input. These settings can be found by navigating to chrome://flags (or about:flags) in the address bar. One specific setting is likely to cause issues for users with touch screens: Touch Events API
This is set to Automatic by default. When it is set to Automatic, Chrome will only check for the presence of touch devices on startup. If the Chrome device is already running when USB is connected, touch will not work.
To ensure Chrome is always listening for touch input, change this setting to Enabled.